Process Design Thermodynamics

Initial dew point

For a single component gas without any impurities, the condensation occurs at constant temperature for a given pressure value. This temperature is known as dew...

Process Design

Bottoms Reboiler

The liquid outlet from bottom of a distillation column is close to its initial boiling point, due to near equilibrium conditions on each of the distillation...

Process Design

Residence time

The term 'residence time' is usually used for continuous process flow through a process vessel, equipment or even a piece of pipe. Residence time for a vessel...

Process Design

Overhead Condenser

The vapors coming from the top of a distillation column are close to their initial dew point. These vapors contain mostly the light component and to some...

Crude Oil Refining Process Design

API Gravity

API gravity is a measure of the density of crude oil as compared to density of water or in other words, it is a measure of specific gravity of crude oil. It is...

Process Equipments

Pumps mechanical seals

Mechanical seals are devices which keep or seal the pumped fluid in the pump casing, thus avoiding leakages and costly loss of pumped product. Since...


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